The explanation was the presence of an additional chromosome in each body cell. Some people believe that it is not considered as a disease due to the fact that internationally people with this syndrome are from one in 700 to one in 800. In Greece, some studies indicate that the birth rate of children with Down syndrome is one in a 700 births.
Factors which critically affect this ratio is the age of mother because it is proved that at the age of 20 the frequency range is one in 2000 births while at the age of 40 one in 100 births or even less.
Down's syndrome is characterized by physical differences and intellectual disability. It is the most common and known chromosomal diversification of our code. Specifically, trisomy is displayed at the 21st pair of chromosomes resulting in the existence of this syndrome, which is also known as "mongolism" because of the special facial features, slightly pulled eyes, projected tongue, short neck and round head.
Also, chromosomal abnormalities commonly coexist with heart diseases. That’s why, needed to be assessed the physical condition of the person with Down's syndrome, be ensured adequate nutrition and fluid intake, as well as prevention from infections. Diagnostic tests are necessary, oxygenation attention so that physical functions be maintained.
People with Down's syndrome have increased mobility of the two bones of the neck that causes instability.
Moreover, most children with Down's syndrome have excessive appetite and tendency to obesity. Balanced nutrition is important for their health. Some children may have problems in chewing food and may need more time to finish their meal.
As all parents, during the development of their children, worry about the proper and adequate education, upbringing and balance, nothing changes for those whose children have Down's syndrome. Clearly, the medical report and medical advice on the physical health of a person with Down syndrome is very important. However, parents as first teachers must be careful, similar to all those who take care of their education, not to be tolerant and overprotective, because the child struggles to be independent and responsible.
For example, the frequent repetition is a learning tool of a small poem or use simple teaching materials helps the training. All this needs to be done with calm and patience, and every time to win something to reward.
Also, parents should take advantage of their tendency to imitate others, because it helps to develop good habits. Another characteristic of children with Down syndrome is the great kindness and courtesy that inherently have, which parents can augment. These children have emotional regressions, most often it is due to the difficulty they have in speaking.
Concerning the mental and emotional state of the child, the training that takes shapes it accordingly. Besides, it has been observed that children with Down syndrome even though they have common features and common trends, this is not an indication of future possibilities. They are able to educate and strengthen in the best possible way their skills. Research has shown that these children can increase their level of intelligence if they are dealt with consistent, patience, love and education.
The immune system of most children with Down syndrome may not be properly developed. Thus, they may be more susceptible to diseases, especially in the early years of their lives. Also, they may need special protection for their sensitive skin. For example, when it's cold or heat may need to remind them to put or remove warm clothes (jacket, scarf, etc.).
The interventions can be made for the difficulty of hearing these people is to help these people to join as much as possible their environment without feeling disadvantaged, improving acoustics and giving them the appropriate treatment.
What does it matter, then, an extra chromosome? Certainly no! That is why all of us we ought not to distinguish people with Down's syndrome, and not to exclude them from the community. Instead, we have to contribute to their integration into society and their acceptance as members.
Internationally, important steps havealreadybeen in this direction, as well as specially trained tutors take their treatment and associations have formed. Meanwhile, March 21st has been established as World Down Syndrome Day.